Jesi's origins are very ancients, was built by the Umbri people that here had the latest outpost in the Picens territory, but the Senons, a celtic population arrived from the french town of Sense, in the IV century a.C. drove away the Umbri population. They settled in the Italy east cost, from Rimini to Ancona, and their territory was named Ager Gallicus. Senons established their frontier on the river Esino, so Jesi was the last defense stronghold versus Picens and founded their capital Sena Gallica (now Senigallia).
More battles happened across one century between Senons Gauls and Romans, until 295 B.C. when Rome defeated the Italic populations in the Sentino Battle, so Senon Gauls were wiped out and sobdued in 293 B.C. Romans established a lot of colonies: in 247 B.C. Jesi was transformed in the civium romanorum of “Aesis” colony and was incorporated in Regio VI Umbria. So was born the municipium of Aesis with a Castrum urban structure used nowadays.
After long wars and submissions periods in 1130 Jesi rised a free municipality with self-governing, consules, arts and trades schools and it marked the feudalism decline. It follows the most important historic moment of town with the statues elaboration, the mayor and municipality palaces and S.Settimio cathedral construcion, and finally boundary walls were fortified in Romans age style. During XII century and then “Respublica Aesina” was founded by local nobility, artisans and merchants so they started to conquer Contado subtrahend it from Jesi's Castles. This territorial expansion created ravings battles with the most powerful neighbours, Ancona first of all, wich did long and hard supremacy battles. In 26th december 1194 was born Federico II: when he become an Empereor he donated to Jesi the honorific of “Città Regia” that sanctioned important rights of full endurance and greats freedoms about Contado governance. Jesi became definitely a Ghibelline faction and its politics fortunes were related for many years to Federico II and his sons Enzo and Manfredi with the obtainment of imperial privileges.
The lordly age end, the pest age end and the recast of the municipality structure gave at central power a stable balance and directed a great demographic, building and economic recovering of the town. From the middle of the year 1400 there was a radical architectural face changement of Jesi through a new urban expansion out of the oldest boundary walls. In this period Baccio Pontelli did the defensive system consolidation and Francesco di Giorgio Martini planed the Palazzo della Signoria project. At the same time there was the culture renaissance: the venetian painter Lorenzo Lotto achieved many spiritual and art absolute masterpieces; Federico Conti from Verona in 1472 printed one of the earlier Divine Commedy, instead Ciccolino di Lucagnolo improved in the goldsmith's art. At the end oft 1500 the local oligarchy claimed itself all the administrative and politic power and manteined it till latest 1700.
In 1797 Napoleonic troops ended the nobiliary-papal monopoly and the Contado governance. Two most important concerns for the XVIII century: the architectural and urbanism city transformation and the arrival of Giambattista Pergolesi and Gaspare Spontini that were two big music personalities and made a name for themselves in all Europe. In 1808 Jesi became one of the Metauro Department chief town through the Marche annexation with Napoleonic Kingdom in the Romanic Republic. Afterward the Napoleon's downfall in Waterloo and the next reestablishement in 1815, Jesi returned again under the Popes governement, but it began to take form a lay and bourgeois conception of the State. During the earliest years of '800 it began a gradual industrialization process with the first silk manufactures. In 1849 Antonio Colocci was elected the Ancona's Province delegate at Roman Republic Constituent Assembly and then, after the Italy Unity, was nominated Kingdom's deputed and senator. In 15th September 1860 the Bersaglieri invaded Jesi, and five days later the Piedmont troops, leaded by the Brigadier Cialdini, defeated the Pope army in the Castelfidardo battle and enacted the town union with the Italy Kingdom.